# Scientific Notation Calculator

## Scientific Notation Converter

Provide a number below to get its scientific notation, E-notation, engineering notation, and real number format. It accepts numbers in the following formats 3672.2, 2.3e11, or 3.5x10^-12.

## Scientific Notation Calculator

Use the calculator below to perform calculations using scientific notation.

 X= ×10 Y= ×10
 Precision: digits after the decimal place in the result
Click the buttons below to calculate

### Scientific notation

Scientific notation is a way to express numbers in a form that makes numbers that are too small or too large more convenient to write and perform calculations with. It is commonly used in mathematics, engineering, and science, as it can help simplify arithmetic operations. In scientific notation, numbers are written as a base, b, referred to as the significand, multiplied by 10 raised to an integer exponent, n, which is referred to as the order of magnitude:

b × 10n

Below are some examples of numbers written in decimal notation compared to scientific notation:

 Decimal notation Scientific notation 5 5 × 100 700 7 × 102 1,000,000 1 × 106 0.0004212 4.212 × 10-4 -5,000,000,000 -5 × 109

### Calculations with scientific notation

Scientific notation can simplify the process of computing basic arithmetic operations by hand.

Addition and subtraction:

To add and subtract in scientific notation, ensure that each number is converted to a number with the same power of 10. For example, 100 can be written as 1×102, 0.01×104, 0.0001×106, and so on. Once the numbers are all written to the same power of 10, add each respective digit. Consider the problem 1.432×102 + 800×10-1 – 0.001×105:

 1.432×102 + 800×10-1 – 0.001×105 = 1.432×102 + 0.8×102 – 1×102 = (1.432 + 0.8 – 1)×102 = 1.232×102

Multiplication:

To multiply numbers in scientific notation, separate the powers of 10 and digits. The digits are multiplied normally, and the exponents of the powers of 10 are added to determine the new power of 10 applied to the product of the digits. Consider 1.432×102 × 800×10-1 × 0.001×105:

1.432 × 800 × 0.001 = 1.1456

102 × 10-1 × 105 = 102+(-1)+5 = 106

Thus:

1.432×102 × 800×10-1 × 0.001×105 = 1.1456×106

Division:

To divide numbers in scientific notation, separate the powers of 10 and digits. Divide the digits normally and subtract the exponents of the powers of 10. By convention, the quotient is written such that there is only one non-zero digit to the left of the decimal. Consider (1.432×102) ÷ (800×10-1) ÷ (0.001×105):

1.432 ÷ 800 ÷ 0.001 = 1.79

102 ÷ 10-1 ÷ 105 = 10(2-(-1)-5) = 10-2

Thus:

(1.432×102) ÷ (800×10-1) ÷ (0.001×105) = 1.79×10-2

If, for example, the solution had instead been 0.179×10-2, by convention, we would shift the decimal to the left such that the first digit left of the decimal point wouldn't be 1, then change the exponent accordingly:

0.179×10-2 = 1.79×10-3

### Engineering notation

Engineering notation is similar to scientific notation except that the exponent, n, is restricted to multiples of 3 such as: 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, -3, -6, etc. This is so that the numbers align with SI prefixes and can be read as such. For example, 103 would have the kilo prefix, 106 would have the mega prefix, and 109 would have the giga prefix. Note that the decimal place of the number can be moved to convert scientific notation into engineering notation. For example:

1.234 × 108 (scientific notation)

can be converted to:

123.4 × 106 (engineering notation)

### E-notation

E-notation is almost the same as scientific notation except that the "× 10" in scientific notation is replaced with just "E." It is used in cases where the exponent cannot be conveniently displayed. It is written as:

bEn

where b is the base, E indicates "x 10" and the n is written after the E. Below is a comparison of scientific notation and E-notation:

 Scientific notation E-notation 5 × 100 5E0 7 × 102 7E2 1 × 106 1E6 4.212 × 10-4 4.212E-4 -5 × 109 -5E9

The "E" can also be written as "e" which is what is used by this calculator. It can also be written in other ways depending on the context, such as being represented differently in different programming languages.